Armed Robbers In Action: Stickups and Street Culture (Northeastern Series in Criminal Behavior)

Time and Punishment: Delayed Consequences and Criminal Behavior
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Deciding to Commit an Armed Robbery 3. Show More Show Less. Among a number of possible reasons that firearm robberies might result in higher average gains are that locations with high value property like banks may employ more security, and offenders may perceive that they need highly dangerous weapons to instil enough fear into victims to overcome the security measures. Be the first to add this to a list. Table 1 summarises a selection of published data on this issue.

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Ongoing research into these areas is important as it assists in the development of effective and up-to-date crime prevention measures. In the s, the number of known victims of armed robberies in Australia increased from around 5, per year to a peak of over 11, in Figure 1. Between and the number dropped steadily to around 6, ABS The number of banks robbed and the number of victims of armed robberies involving firearms have generally mirrored this pattern.

It is unlikely that these statistics represent the full extent of armed robbery in this country, as these data reflect only offences reported to and recorded by police. Factors underlying these trends may include reductions in regional and metropolitan bank branches and bank security hardening, such as through the use of protective screens, more secure safes, limiting the amount of cash held by tellers and so on Borzycki Falls in heroin availability since early which coincide with similar falls in the incidence of armed robbery indicate the significance of this pattern for the specific crime of armed robbery.

As will be discussed later, a further trend observed in armed robbery is that traditional career robbers may be turning to other, more easily obtained sources of illicit income, such as through the armed robbery of hotels and clubs. Figure 1 compares lifetime rates of substance use in the sample with rates reported among Australians aged 14 years or over, from the National Drug Strategy household survey AIHW As expected, reported rates of substance use were markedly higher among participants than among the general population, with participants 41 times more likely to report heroin use, 32 times more likely to report injecting drug use, and at least 5 times more likely to report ecstasy, inhalant, amphetamine and cocaine use.

Understanding the decision making processes of both imprisoned and active offenders is one important way to reduce risk to victims, especially in terms of harm done and the likelihood of being a victim.

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Importantly, understanding what motivates offenders to commit crime can help in devising effective prevention measures. This paper outlines what is known of armed robbery, mostly gleaned from interviews with prisoners. While research based on interviews with active armed robbers can offer a different offender perspective, few such studies have been undertaken.

Armed Robbers In Action: Stickups and Street Culture (Northeastern Series in Criminal Behavior)

Much of what is outlined in this paper, particularly the discussion around offender decision making processes, is drawn from material that is now 10 or more years old. This suggests that new research is needed in this area, especially in view of advancements in security technology and possible changes in the armed robber offender profile. The careers of armed robbers can be seen as a progressive scale, with particular characteristics varying as more robbery offences are committed over time. Beginning as amateurs, offenders tend to be younger and less experienced that is, they do not have extensive prior records and tend to rob individuals.

A large proportion of amateur armed robbers are not likely to go on to become regular robbery offenders. Those who do continue committing robbery offences will become more professional as their career continues.

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They will be older, become more likely to rob commercial establishments and have more extensive prior criminal records. The common characteristic among all types of armed robbers and violent property offenders in general however, is that the offender is a stranger to the victim in the great majority of cases, in contrast to most violent crimes against persons Indermaur Armed robbers in Australia and overseas are overwhelmingly male, with few females engaging in the crime.

Australian data indicate that around 10 percent of armed robbers are females Borzycki Most convicted armed robbers are less than 30 years of age Borzycki There is a slight difference in age between those who rob banks and other armed robbers, the former being somewhat older Nugent et al. Few armed robbers in Australia or overseas have completed high school education and fewer still are engaged in skilled employment. In one Australian study Kapardis , 75 percent of convicted armed robbers possessed no employment skills and one-third had worked at some stage as a labourer.

Continuing involvement in criminal activity, both robbery and other criminal offences, characterises an armed robber's way of life.

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They then graduate to armed robbery having tried many other forms of primarily nonviolent crime, such as break and enter, motor vehicle theft, receiving stolen goods, fraud and so on. It is of little surprise then that most convicted armed robbers have extensive prior criminal records. Overall in Australia, regular armed robbery offenders serving prison terms report that over their lifetime they have an average of seven armed robbery charges, five convictions and two prison sentences AICDUCO male survey [computer file].

However, and as noted in the introduction, their actual level of armed robbery offending is often far greater than officially reported, with over two-thirds reporting that the police rarely or never find out about the times that they have committed armed robbery. This pattern matches victims of crime typically reporting a greater number of offences as having occurred than appear in official police statistics AIC For the majority of armed robbers, the crime is primarily about funding a particular lifestyle, particularly one fuelled by illicit drugs.

For a small group of entrenched armed robbery offenders, the motivation to commit armed robbery appears to be more about earning a regular illicit income; a means to pay bills and support a family that is, more like a regular job. Table 1 summarises a selection of published data on this issue. In particular, it shows that between about one-fifth and one-third of offenders in the selected studies cite 'money for drugs' as a prime motivating factor for committing armed robbery.

DOI: Authors examine how active drug robbers individuals who take money and drugs from dealers by force or threat of force perceive, plan, and respond to the risk of dealer-victim retaliation in real-life settings and circumstances. Data were drawn from in-depth interviews with twenty-five noninstitutionalized, active drug robbers recruited from the streets of St. Louis, Missouri. Available online to subscribers. Katz, J. Seductions of crime : Moral and sensual attractions in doing evil. New York: Basic Books. Employs an inductive analytic strategy in an attempt to develop a grounded theoretical basis for explaining offender decision making. Shover, N. Great pretenders: Pursuits and careers of persistent thieves.

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Crime and Society. Boulder, CO: Westview. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice An ethnographic study of criminal decision employing a sample of persistent property offenders. The authors argue that improved understanding of criminal decision making by persistent property offenders is gained by exploring how their utilities are shaped and sustained by their day-to-day lifestyle choices and characteristics. Lifestyles that emphasize hedonistic pursuits and short-term planning encourage the constant need for financial capital and an outlook on offending that discounts the real risks of crime.

Wright, R. Burglars on the job: Streetlife and residential break-ins. Boston: Northeastern Univ. They present their findings in the areas of motivation, target selection planning , techniques of entering and searching a targeted residence enactment , and methods of selling stolen goods aftermath , concluding with a discussion of the theoretical implications of their research.

Armed robbers in action: Stickups and street culture.